Butfirst I wastopreparemoreland, for I hadnowseedenoughtosowaboveanacreofground. Before I didthis, I had a week’s workatleasttomakeme a spade, which, whenitwasdone, wasbut a sorryoneindeed, andveryheavy, andrequireddoublelabourtoworkwithit. However, I gotthroughthat, andsowedmyseedintwolargeflatpiecesofground, asnearmyhouseas I couldfindthemtomymind, andfencedtheminwith a goodhedge, thestakesofwhichwereallcutoffthatwoodwhich I hadsetbefore, andknewitwouldgrow; sothat, in a year’s time, I knew I shouldhave a quickorlivinghedge, thatwouldwantbutlittlerepair. Thisworkdidnottakemeuplessthanthreemonths, because a greatpartofthattimewasthewetseason, when I couldnotgoabroad. Within-doors, thatiswhenitrainedand I couldnotgoout, I foundemploymentinthefollowingoccupations—alwaysobserving, thatallthewhile I wasatwork I divertedmyselfwithtalkingtomyparrot, andteachinghimtospeak; and I quicklytaughthimtoknowhisownname, andatlasttospeakitoutprettyloud, “Poll,” whichwasthefirstword I everheardspokenintheislandbyanymouthbutmyown. This, therefore, wasnotmywork, butanassistancetomywork; fornow, as I said, I had a greatemploymentuponmyhands, asfollows: I hadlongstudiedtomake, bysomemeansorother, someearthenvessels, which, indeed, I wantedsorely, butknewnotwheretocomeatthem. However, consideringtheheatoftheclimate, I didnotdoubtbutif I couldfindoutanyclay, I mightmakesomepotsthatmight, beingdriedinthesun, behardenoughandstrongenoughtobearhandling, andtoholdanythingthatwasdry, andrequiredtobekeptso; andasthiswasnecessaryinthepreparingcorn, meal, &c., whichwasthething I wasdoing, I resolvedtomakesomeaslargeas I could, andfitonlytostandlikejars, toholdwhatshouldbeputintothem.

1

Itwouldmakethereaderpityme, orratherlaughatme, totellhowmanyawkwardways I tooktoraisethispaste; whatodd, misshapen, uglythings I made; howmanyofthemfellinandhowmanyfellout, theclaynotbeingstiffenoughtobearitsownweight; howmanycrackedbytheover-violentheatofthesun, beingsetouttoohastily; andhowmanyfellinpieceswithonlyremoving, aswellbeforeasaftertheyweredried; and, in a word, how, afterhavinglabouredhardtofindtheclay—todigit, totemperit, tobringithome, andworkit—I couldnotmakeabovetwolargeearthenuglythings (I cannotcallthemjars) inabouttwomonths’ labour.

2

However, asthesunbakedthesetwoverydryandhard, I liftedthemverygentlyup, andsetthemdownagainintwogreatwickerbaskets, which I hadmadeonpurposeforthem, thattheymightnotbreak; andasbetweenthepotandthebaskettherewas a littleroomtospare, I stuffeditfullofthericeandbarleystraw; andthesetwopotsbeingtostandalwaysdry I thoughtwouldholdmydrycorn, andperhapsthemeal, whenthecornwasbruised.

3

Though I miscarriedsomuchinmydesignforlargepots, yet I madeseveralsmallerthingswithbettersuccess; suchaslittleroundpots, flatdishes, pitchers, andpipkins, andanythingsmyhandturnedto; andtheheatofthesunbakedthemquitehard.

4

Butallthiswouldnotanswermyend, whichwastogetanearthenpottoholdwhatwasliquid, andbearthefire, whichnoneofthesecoulddo. Ithappenedaftersometime, making a prettylargefireforcookingmymeat, when I wenttoputitoutafter I haddonewithit, I found a brokenpieceofoneofmyearthenwarevesselsinthefire, burntashardas a stone, andredas a tile. I wasagreeablysurprisedtoseeit, andsaidtomyself, thatcertainlytheymightbemadetoburnwhole, iftheywouldburnbroken.

5

Thissetmetostudyhowtoordermyfire, soastomakeitburnsomepots. I hadnonotionof a kiln, suchasthepottersburnin, orofglazingthemwithlead, though I hadsomeleadtodoitwith; but I placedthreelargepipkinsandtwoorthreepotsin a pile, oneuponanother, andplacedmyfirewoodallroundit, with a greatheapofembersunderthem. I pliedthefirewithfreshfuelroundtheoutsideanduponthetop, till I sawthepotsintheinsidered-hotquitethrough, andobservedthattheydidnotcrackatall. When I sawthemclearred, I letthemstandinthatheataboutfiveorsixhours, till I foundoneofthem, thoughitdidnotcrack, didmeltorrun; forthesandwhichwasmixedwiththeclaymeltedbytheviolenceoftheheat, andwouldhaverunintoglassif I hadgoneon; so I slackedmyfiregraduallytillthepotsbegantoabateoftheredcolour; andwatchingthemallnight, that I mightnotletthefireabatetoofast, inthemorning I hadthreeverygood (I willnotsayhandsome) pipkins, andtwootherearthenpots, ashardburntascouldbedesired, andoneofthemperfectlyglazedwiththerunningofthesand.

6

Afterthisexperiment, I neednotsaythat I wantednosortofearthenwareformyuse; but I mustneedssayastotheshapesofthem, theywereveryindifferent, asanyonemaysuppose, when I hadnowayofmakingthembutasthechildrenmakedirtpies, oras a womanwouldmakepiesthatneverlearnedtoraisepaste.

7

Nojoyat a thingofsomean a naturewaseverequaltomine, when I found I hadmadeanearthenpotthatwouldbearthefire; and I hadhardlypatiencetostaytilltheywerecoldbefore I setoneonthefireagainwithsomewaterinittoboilmesomemeat, whichitdidadmirablywell; andwith a pieceof a kid I madesomeverygoodbroth, though I wantedoatmeal, andseveralotheringredientsrequisitetomakeitasgoodas I wouldhavehaditbeen.

8

Mynextconcernwastogetme a stonemortartostamporbeatsomecornin; forastothemill, therewasnothoughtofarrivingatthatperfectionofartwithonepairofhands. Tosupplythiswant, I wasat a greatloss; for, ofallthetradesintheworld, I wasasperfectlyunqualifiedfor a stone-cutterasforanywhatever; neitherhad I anytoolstogoaboutitwith. I spentmany a daytofindout a greatstonebigenoughtocuthollow, andmakefitfor a mortar, andcouldfindnoneatall, exceptwhatwasinthesolidrock, andwhich I hadnowaytodigorcutout; norindeedweretherocksintheislandofhardnesssufficient, butwereallof a sandy, crumblingstone, whichneitherwouldbeartheweightof a heavypestle, norwouldbreakthecornwithoutfillingitwithsand. So, after a greatdealoftimelostinsearchingfor a stone, I gaveitover, andresolvedtolookoutfor a greatblockofhardwood, which I found, indeed, mucheasier; andgettingoneasbigas I hadstrengthtostir, I roundedit, andformeditontheoutsidewithmyaxeandhatchet, andthenwiththehelpoffireandinfinitelabour, made a hollowplaceinit, astheIndiansinBrazilmaketheircanoes. Afterthis, I made a greatheavypestleorbeaterofthewoodcalledtheiron-wood; andthis I preparedandlaidbyagainst I hadmynextcropofcorn, which I proposedtomyselftogrind, orratherpoundintomealtomakebread.

9

Mynextdifficultywastomake a sieveorsearce, todressmymeal, andtopartitfromthebranandthehusk; withoutwhich I didnotseeitpossible I couldhaveanybread. Thiswas a mostdifficultthingeventothinkon, fortobesure I hadnothinglikethenecessarythingtomakeit—I meanfinethincanvasorstufftosearcethemealthrough. Andhere I wasat a fullstopformanymonths; nordid I reallyknowwhattodo. Linen I hadnoneleftbutwhatwasmererags; I hadgoat’s hair, butneitherknewhowtoweaveitorspinit; andhad I knownhow, herewerenotoolstoworkitwith. Alltheremedythat I foundforthiswas, thatatlast I didremember I had, amongtheseamen’s clotheswhichweresavedoutoftheship, someneckclothsofcalicoormuslin; andwithsomepiecesofthese I madethreesmallsievesproperenoughforthework; andthus I madeshiftforsomeyears: how I didafterwards, I shallshowinitsplace.

10

Thebakingpartwasthenextthingtobeconsidered, andhow I shouldmakebreadwhen I cametohavecorn; forfirst, I hadnoyeast. Astothatpart, therewasnosupplyingthewant, so I didnotconcernmyselfmuchaboutit. Butforanoven I wasindeedingreatpain. Atlength I foundoutanexperimentforthatalso, whichwasthis: I madesomeearthen-vesselsverybroadbutnotdeep, thatistosay, abouttwofeetdiameter, andnotabovenineinchesdeep. These I burnedinthefire, as I haddonetheother, andlaidthemby; andwhen I wantedtobake, I made a greatfireuponmyhearth, which I hadpavedwithsomesquaretilesofmyownbakingandburningalso; but I shouldnotcallthemsquare.

11

Whenthefirewoodwasburnedprettymuchintoembersorlivecoals, I drewthemforwarduponthishearth, soastocoveritallover, andthere I letthemlietillthehearthwasveryhot. Thensweepingawayalltheembers, I setdownmyloaforloaves, andwhelmingdowntheearthenpotuponthem, drewtheembersallroundtheoutsideofthepot, tokeepinandaddtotheheat; andthusaswellasinthebestovenintheworld, I bakedmybarley-loaves, andbecameinlittletime a goodpastrycookintothebargain; for I mademyselfseveralcakesandpuddingsoftherice; but I madenopies, neitherhad I anythingtoputintothemsupposing I had, excepttheflesheitheroffowlsorgoats.

12

Itneednotbewonderedatifallthesethingstookmeupmostpartofthethirdyearofmyabodehere; foritistobeobservedthatintheintervalsofthesethings I hadmynewharvestandhusbandrytomanage; for I reapedmycorninitsseason, andcarriedithomeaswellas I could, andlaiditupintheear, inmylargebaskets, till I hadtimetorubitout, for I hadnofloortothrashiton, orinstrumenttothrashitwith.

13

Andnow, indeed, mystockofcornincreasing, I reallywantedtobuildmybarnsbigger; I wanted a placetolayitupin, fortheincreaseofthecornnowyieldedmesomuch, that I hadofthebarleyabouttwentybushels, andofthericeasmuchormore; insomuchthatnow I resolvedtobegintouseitfreely; formybreadhadbeenquitegone a greatwhile; also I resolvedtoseewhatquantitywouldbesufficientforme a wholeyear, andtosowbutonce a year.

14

Uponthewhole, I foundthatthefortybushelsofbarleyandriceweremuchmorethan I couldconsumein a year; so I resolvedtosowjustthesamequantityeveryyearthat I sowedthelast, inhopesthatsuch a quantitywouldfullyprovidemewithbread, &c.

15

Allthewhilethesethingsweredoing, youmaybesuremythoughtsranmanytimesupontheprospectoflandwhich I hadseenfromtheothersideoftheisland; and I wasnotwithoutsecretwishesthat I wereonshorethere, fancyingthat, seeingthemainland, andaninhabitedcountry, I mightfindsomewayorothertoconveymyselffurther, andperhapsatlastfindsomemeansofescape.

16

Butallthiswhile I madenoallowanceforthedangersofsuchanundertaking, andhow I mightfallintothehandsofsavages, andperhapssuchas I mighthavereasontothinkfarworsethanthelionsandtigersofAfrica: thatif I oncecameintheirpower, I shouldrun a hazardofmorethan a thousandtooneofbeingkilled, andperhapsofbeingeaten; for I hadheardthatthepeopleoftheCaribbeancoastwerecannibalsorman-eaters, and I knewbythelatitudethat I couldnotbefarfromthatshore. Then, supposingtheywerenotcannibals, yettheymightkillme, asmanyEuropeanswhohadfallenintotheirhandshadbeenserved, evenwhentheyhadbeentenortwentytogether—muchmore I, thatwasbutone, andcouldmakelittleornodefence; allthesethings, I say, which I oughttohaveconsideredwell; anddidcomeintomythoughtsafterwards, yetgavemenoapprehensionsatfirst, andmyheadranmightilyuponthethoughtofgettingovertotheshore.

17

Now I wishedformyboyXury, andthelong-boatwithshoulder-of-muttonsail, withwhich I sailedabove a thousandmilesonthecoastofAfrica; butthiswasinvain: then I thought I wouldgoandlookatourship’s boat, which, as I havesaid, wasblownupupontheshore a greatway, inthestorm, whenwewerefirstcastaway. Shelayalmostwhereshedidatfirst, butnotquite; andwasturned, bytheforceofthewavesandthewinds, almostbottomupward, against a highridgeofbeachy, roughsand, butnowaterabouther. If I hadhadhandstohaverefittedher, andtohavelaunchedherintothewater, theboatwouldhavedonewellenough, and I mighthavegonebackintotheBrazilswithhereasilyenough; but I mighthaveforeseenthat I couldnomoreturnherandsetheruprightuponherbottomthan I couldremovetheisland; however, I wenttothewoods, andcutleversandrollers, andbroughtthemtotheboatresolvingtotrywhat I coulddo; suggestingtomyselfthatif I couldbutturnherdown, I mightrepairthedamageshehadreceived, andshewouldbe a verygoodboat, and I mightgotoseainherveryeasily.

18

I sparednopains, indeed, inthispieceoffruitlesstoil, andspent, I think, threeorfourweeksaboutit; atlastfindingitimpossibletoheaveitupwithmylittlestrength, I felltodiggingawaythesand, toundermineit, andsotomakeitfalldown, settingpiecesofwoodtothrustandguideitrightinthefall.

19

Butwhen I haddonethis, I wasunabletostiritupagain, ortogetunderit, muchlesstomoveitforwardtowardsthewater; so I wasforcedtogiveitover; andyet, though I gaveoverthehopesoftheboat, mydesiretoventureoverforthemainincreased, ratherthandecreased, asthemeansforitseemedimpossible.

20

Thisatlengthputmeuponthinkingwhetheritwasnotpossibletomakemyself a canoe, orperiagua, suchasthenativesofthoseclimatesmake, evenwithouttools, or, as I mightsay, withouthands, ofthetrunkof a greattree. This I notonlythoughtpossible, buteasy, andpleasedmyselfextremelywiththethoughtsofmakingit, andwithmyhavingmuchmoreconvenienceforitthananyofthenegroesorIndians; butnotatallconsideringtheparticularinconvenienceswhich I layundermorethantheIndiansdid—viz. wantofhandstomoveit, whenitwasmade, intothewater—a difficultymuchharderformetosurmountthanalltheconsequencesofwantoftoolscouldbetothem; forwhatwasittome, ifwhen I hadchosen a vasttreeinthewoods, andwithmuchtroublecutitdown, if I hadbeenablewithmytoolstohewanddubtheoutsideintothepropershapeof a boat, andburnorcutouttheinsidetomakeithollow, soastomake a boatofit—if, afterallthis, I mustleaveitjusttherewhere I foundit, andnotbeabletolaunchitintothewater?

21

Onewouldhavethought I couldnothavehadtheleastreflectionuponmymindofmycircumstanceswhile I wasmakingthisboat, but I shouldhaveimmediatelythoughthow I shouldgetitintothesea; butmythoughtsweresointentuponmyvoyageovertheseainit, that I neveronceconsideredhow I shouldgetitofftheland: anditwasreally, initsownnature, moreeasyformetoguideitoverforty-fivemilesofseathanaboutforty-fivefathomsofland, whereitlay, tosetitafloatinthewater.

22

I wenttoworkuponthisboatthemostlike a foolthatevermandidwhohadanyofhissensesawake. I pleasedmyselfwiththedesign, withoutdeterminingwhether I waseverabletoundertakeit; notbutthatthedifficultyoflaunchingmyboatcameoftenintomyhead; but I put a stoptomyinquiriesintoitbythisfoolishanswerwhich I gavemyself—“Letmefirstmakeit; I warrant I willfindsomewayorothertogetitalongwhenitisdone.”

23

Thiswas a mostpreposterousmethod; buttheeagernessofmyfancyprevailed, andtowork I went. I felled a cedar-tree, and I questionmuchwhetherSolomoneverhadsuch a oneforthebuildingoftheTempleofJerusalem; itwasfivefeetteninchesdiameteratthelowerpartnextthestump, andfourfeeteleveninchesdiameterattheendoftwenty-twofeet; afterwhichitlessenedfor a while, andthenpartedintobranches. Itwasnotwithoutinfinitelabourthat I felledthistree; I wastwentydayshackingandhewingatitatthebottom; I wasfourteenmoregettingthebranchesandlimbsandthevastspreadingheadcutoff, which I hackedandhewedthroughwithaxeandhatchet, andinexpressiblelabour; afterthis, itcostme a monthtoshapeitanddubitto a proportion, andtosomethinglikethebottomof a boat, thatitmightswimuprightasitoughttodo. Itcostmenearthreemonthsmoretocleartheinside, andworkitoutsoastomakeanexactboatofit; this I did, indeed, withoutfire, bymeremalletandchisel, andbythedintofhardlabour, till I hadbroughtittobe a veryhandsomeperiagua, andbigenoughtohavecarriedsix-and-twentymen, andconsequentlybigenoughtohavecarriedmeandallmycargo.

24

When I hadgonethroughthiswork I wasextremelydelightedwithit. Theboatwasreallymuchbiggerthanever I saw a canoeorperiagua, thatwasmadeofonetree, inmylife. Many a wearystrokeithadcost, youmaybesure; andhad I gottenitintothewater, I makenoquestion, but I shouldhavebegunthemaddestvoyage, andthemostunlikelytobeperformed, thateverwasundertaken.

25

Butallmydevicestogetitintothewaterfailedme; thoughtheycostmeinfinitelabourtoo. Itlayaboutonehundredyardsfromthewater, andnotmore; butthefirstinconveniencewas, itwasuphilltowardsthecreek. Well, totakeawaythisdiscouragement, I resolvedtodigintothesurfaceoftheearth, andsomake a declivity: this I began, anditcostme a prodigiousdealofpains (butwhogrudgepainswhohavetheirdeliveranceinview?); butwhenthiswasworkedthrough, andthisdifficultymanaged, itwasstillmuchthesame, for I couldnomorestirthecanoethan I couldtheotherboat. Then I measuredthedistanceofground, andresolvedtocut a dockorcanal, tobringthewateruptothecanoe, seeing I couldnotbringthecanoedowntothewater. Well, I beganthiswork; andwhen I begantoenteruponit, andcalculatehowdeepitwastobedug, howbroad, howthestuffwastobethrownout, I foundthat, bythenumberofhands I had, beingnonebutmyown, itmusthavebeentenortwelveyearsbefore I couldhavegonethroughwithit; fortheshorelaysohigh, thatattheupperenditmusthavebeenatleasttwentyfeetdeep; soatlength, thoughwithgreatreluctancy, I gavethisattemptoveralso.

26

Thisgrievedmeheartily; andnow I saw, thoughtoolate, thefollyofbeginning a workbeforewecountthecost, andbeforewejudgerightlyofourownstrengthtogothroughwithit.

27

Inthemiddleofthiswork I finishedmyfourthyearinthisplace, andkeptmyanniversarywiththesamedevotion, andwithasmuchcomfortaseverbefore; for, by a constantstudyandseriousapplicationtotheWordofGod, andbytheassistanceofHisgrace, I gained a differentknowledgefromwhat I hadbefore. I entertaineddifferentnotionsofthings. I lookednowupontheworldas a thingremote, which I hadnothingtodowith, noexpectationsfrom, and, indeed, nodesiresabout: in a word, I hadnothingindeedtodowithit, norwaseverlikelytohave, so I thoughtitlooked, aswemayperhapslookuponithereafter—viz. as a place I hadlivedin, butwascomeoutofit; andwellmight I say, asFatherAbrahamtoDives, “Betweenmeandtheeis a greatgulffixed.”

28

Inthefirstplace, I wasremovedfromallthewickednessoftheworldhere; I hadneitherthelustsoftheflesh, thelustsoftheeye, northeprideoflife. I hadnothingtocovet, for I hadallthat I wasnowcapableofenjoying; I waslordofthewholemanor; or, if I pleased, I mightcallmyselfkingoremperoroverthewholecountrywhich I hadpossessionof: therewerenorivals; I hadnocompetitor, nonetodisputesovereigntyorcommandwithme: I mighthaveraisedship-loadingsofcorn, but I hadnouseforit; so I letaslittlegrowas I thoughtenoughformyoccasion. I hadtortoiseorturtleenough, butnowandthenonewasasmuchas I couldputtoanyuse: I hadtimberenoughtohavebuilt a fleetofships; and I hadgrapesenoughtohavemadewine, ortohavecuredintoraisins, tohaveloadedthatfleetwhenithadbeenbuilt.

29

Butall I couldmakeuseofwasallthatwasvaluable: I hadenoughtoeatandsupplymywants, andwhatwasalltheresttome? If I killedmorefleshthan I couldeat, thedogmusteatit, orvermin; if I sowedmorecornthan I couldeat, itmustbespoiled; thetreesthat I cutdownwerelyingtorotontheground; I couldmakenomoreuseofthembutforfuel, andthat I hadnooccasionforbuttodressmyfood.

30

In a word, thenatureandexperienceofthingsdictatedtome, uponjustreflection, thatallthegoodthingsofthisworldarenofarthergoodtousthantheyareforouruse; andthat, whateverwemayheapuptogiveothers, weenjoyjustasmuchaswecanuse, andnomore. Themostcovetous, gripingmiserintheworldwouldhavebeencuredoftheviceofcovetousnessifhehadbeeninmycase; for I possessedinfinitelymorethan I knewwhattodowith. I hadnoroomfordesire, exceptitwasofthingswhich I hadnot, andtheywerebuttrifles, though, indeed, ofgreatusetome. I had, as I hintedbefore, a parcelofmoney, aswellgoldassilver, aboutthirty-sixpoundssterling. Alas! therethesorry, uselessstufflay; I hadnomoremannerofbusinessforit; andoftenthoughtwithmyselfthat I wouldhavegiven a handfulofitfor a grossoftobacco-pipes; orfor a hand-milltogrindmycorn; nay, I wouldhavegivenitallfor a sixpenny-worthofturnipandcarrotseedoutofEngland, orfor a handfulofpeasandbeans, and a bottleofink. Asitwas, I hadnottheleastadvantagebyitorbenefitfromit; butthereitlayin a drawer, andgrewmouldywiththedampofthecaveinthewetseasons; andif I hadhadthedrawerfullofdiamonds, ithadbeenthesamecase—theyhadbeenofnomannerofvaluetome, becauseofnouse.

31

I hadnowbroughtmystateoflifetobemucheasierinitselfthanitwasatfirst, andmucheasiertomymind, aswellastomybody. I frequentlysatdowntomeatwiththankfulness, andadmiredthehandofGod’s providence, whichhadthusspreadmytableinthewilderness. I learnedtolookmoreuponthebrightsideofmycondition, andlessuponthedarkside, andtoconsiderwhat I enjoyedratherthanwhat I wanted; andthisgavemesometimessuchsecretcomforts, that I cannotexpressthem; andwhich I takenoticeofhere, toputthosediscontentedpeopleinmindofit, whocannotenjoycomfortablywhatGodhasgiventhem, becausetheyseeandcovetsomethingthatHehasnotgiventhem. Allourdiscontentsaboutwhatwewantappearedtometospringfromthewantofthankfulnessforwhatwehave.

32

Anotherreflectionwasofgreatusetome, anddoubtlesswouldbesotoanyonethatshouldfallintosuchdistressasminewas; andthiswas, tocomparemypresentconditionwithwhat I atfirstexpecteditwouldbe; nay, withwhatitwouldcertainlyhavebeen, ifthegoodprovidenceofGodhadnotwonderfullyorderedtheshiptobecastupnearertotheshore, where I notonlycouldcomeather, butcouldbringwhat I gotoutofhertotheshore, formyreliefandcomfort; withoutwhich, I hadwantedfortoolstowork, weaponsfordefence, andgunpowderandshotforgettingmyfood.

33

I spentwholehours, I maysaywholedays, inrepresentingtomyself, inthemostlivelycolours, how I musthaveactedif I hadgotnothingoutoftheship. How I couldnothavesomuchasgotanyfood, exceptfishandturtles; andthat, asitwaslongbefore I foundanyofthem, I musthaveperishedfirst; that I shouldhavelived, if I hadnotperished, like a meresavage; thatif I hadkilled a goator a fowl, byanycontrivance, I hadnowaytoflayoropenit, orpartthefleshfromtheskinandthebowels, ortocutitup; butmustgnawitwithmyteeth, andpullitwithmyclaws, like a beast.

I hadanotherreflection, whichassistedmealsotocomfortmymindwithhopes; andthiswascomparingmypresentsituationwithwhat I haddeserved, andhadthereforereasontoexpectfromthehandofProvidence. I hadlived a dreadfullife, perfectlydestituteoftheknowledgeandfearofGod. I hadbeenwellinstructedbyfatherandmother; neitherhadtheybeenwantingtomeintheirearlyendeavourstoinfuse a religiousaweofGodintomymind, a senseofmyduty, andwhatthenatureandendofmybeingrequiredofme. But, alas! fallingearlyintotheseafaringlife, whichofalllivesisthemostdestituteofthefearofGod, thoughHisterrorsarealwaysbeforethem; I say, fallingearlyintotheseafaringlife, andintoseafaringcompany, allthatlittlesenseofreligionwhich I hadentertainedwaslaughedoutofmebymymessmates; by a hardeneddespisingofdangers, andtheviewsofdeath, whichgrewhabitualtomebymylongabsencefromallmannerofopportunitiestoconversewithanythingbutwhatwaslikemyself, ortohearanythingthatwasgoodortendedtowardsit.

36

Sovoidwas I ofeverythingthatwasgood, ortheleastsenseofwhat I was, orwastobe, that, inthegreatestdeliverances I enjoyed—suchasmyescapefromSallee; mybeingtakenupbythePortuguesemasteroftheship; mybeingplantedsowellintheBrazils; myreceivingthecargofromEngland, andthelike—I neverhadoncethewords “ThankGod!” somuchasonmymind, orinmymouth; norinthegreatestdistresshad I somuchas a thoughttopraytoHim, orsomuchastosay, “Lord, havemercyuponme!” no, nortomentionthenameofGod, unlessitwastoswearby, andblasphemeit.

37

I hadterriblereflectionsuponmymindformanymonths, as I havealreadyobserved, onaccountofmywickedandhardenedlifepast; andwhen I lookedaboutme, andconsideredwhatparticularprovidenceshadattendedmesincemycomingintothisplace, andhowGodhaddealtbountifullywithme—hadnotonlypunishedmelessthanmyiniquityhaddeserved, buthadsoplentifullyprovidedforme—thisgavemegreathopesthatmyrepentancewasaccepted, andthatGodhadyetmercyinstoreforme.

38

Withthesereflections I workedmymindup, notonlyto a resignationtothewillofGodinthepresentdispositionofmycircumstances, butevento a sincerethankfulnessformycondition; andthat I, whowasyet a livingman, oughtnottocomplain, seeing I hadnottheduepunishmentofmysins; that I enjoyedsomanymercieswhich I hadnoreasontohaveexpectedinthatplace; that I oughtnevermoretorepineatmycondition, buttorejoice, andtogivedailythanksforthatdailybread, whichnothingbut a crowdofwonderscouldhavebrought; that I oughttoconsider I hadbeenfedevenby a miracle, evenasgreatasthatoffeedingElijahbyravens, nay, by a longseriesofmiracles; andthat I couldhardlyhavenamed a placeintheuninhabitablepartoftheworldwhere I couldhavebeencastmoretomyadvantage; a placewhere, as I hadnosociety, whichwasmyafflictionononehand, so I foundnoravenousbeasts, nofuriouswolvesortigers, tothreatenmylife; novenomouscreatures, orpoisons, which I mightfeedontomyhurt; nosavagestomurderanddevourme. In a word, asmylifewas a lifeofsorrowoneway, soitwas a lifeofmercyanother; and I wantednothingtomakeit a lifeofcomfortbuttobeabletomakemysenseofGod’s goodnesstome, andcareovermeinthiscondition, bemydailyconsolation; andafter I didmake a justimprovementonthesethings, I wentaway, andwasnomoresad. I hadnowbeenheresolongthatmanythingswhich I hadbroughtonshoreformyhelpwereeitherquitegone, orverymuchwastedandnearspent.

39

Myink, as I observed, hadbeengonesometime, allbut a verylittle, which I ekedoutwithwater, a littleand a little, tillitwassopale, itscarceleftanyappearanceofblackuponthepaper. Aslongasitlasted I madeuseofittominutedownthedaysofthemonthonwhichanyremarkablethinghappenedtome; andfirst, bycastinguptimespast, I rememberedthattherewas a strangeconcurrenceofdaysinthevariousprovidenceswhichbefellme, andwhich, if I hadbeensuperstitiouslyinclinedtoobservedaysasfatalorfortunate, I mighthavehadreasontohavelookeduponwith a greatdealofcuriosity.

40

First, I hadobservedthatthesamedaythat I brokeawayfrommyfatherandfriendsandranawaytoHull, inordertogotosea, thesamedayafterwards I wastakenbytheSalleeman-of-war, andmade a slave; thesamedayoftheyearthat I escapedoutofthewreckofthatshipinYarmouthRoads, thatsameday-yearafterwards I mademyescapefromSalleein a boat; thesamedayoftheyear I wasbornon—viz. the 30thofSeptember, thatsameday I hadmylifesomiraculouslysavedtwenty-sixyearsafter, when I wascastonshoreinthisisland; sothatmywickedlifeandmysolitarylifebeganbothon a day.

41

Thenextthingtomyinkbeingwastedwasthatofmybread—I meanthebiscuitwhich I broughtoutoftheship; this I hadhusbandedtothelastdegree, allowingmyselfbutonecakeofbread a-dayforabove a year; andyet I wasquitewithoutbreadfornear a yearbefore I gotanycornofmyown, andgreatreason I hadtobethankfulthat I hadanyatall, thegettingitbeing, ashasbeenalreadyobserved, nexttomiraculous.

42

Myclothes, too, begantodecay; astolinen, I hadhadnone a goodwhile, exceptsomechequeredshirtswhich I foundinthechestsoftheotherseamen, andwhich I carefullypreserved; becausemanytimes I couldbearnootherclothesonbut a shirt; anditwas a verygreathelptomethat I had, amongallthemen’s clothesoftheship, almostthreedozenofshirts. Therewerealso, indeed, severalthickwatch-coatsoftheseamen’s whichwereleft, buttheyweretoohottowear; andthoughitistruethattheweatherwassoviolentlyhotthattherewasnoneedofclothes, yet I couldnotgoquitenaked—no, though I hadbeeninclinedtoit, which I wasnot—norcould I abidethethoughtofit, though I wasalone. Thereasonwhy I couldnotgonakedwas, I couldnotbeartheheatofthesunsowellwhenquitenakedaswithsomeclotheson; nay, theveryheatfrequentlyblisteredmyskin: whereas, with a shirton, theairitselfmadesomemotion, andwhistlingundertheshirt, wastwofoldcoolerthanwithoutit. Nomorecould I everbringmyselftogooutintheheatofthesunwithout a capor a hat; theheatofthesun, beatingwithsuchviolenceasitdoesinthatplace, wouldgivemetheheadachepresently, bydartingsodirectlyonmyhead, without a caporhaton, sothat I couldnotbearit; whereas, if I putonmyhatitwouldpresentlygoaway.

43

Upontheseviews I begantoconsideraboutputtingthefewrags I had, which I calledclothes, intosomeorder; I hadwornoutallthewaistcoats I had, andmybusinesswasnowtotryif I couldnotmakejacketsoutofthegreatwatch-coatswhich I hadbyme, andwithsuchothermaterialsas I had; so I settowork, tailoring, orrather, indeed, botching, for I mademostpiteousworkofit. However, I madeshifttomaketwoorthreenewwaistcoats, which I hopedwouldserveme a greatwhile: asforbreechesordrawers, I madebut a verysorryshiftindeedtillafterwards.

44

I havementionedthat I savedtheskinsofallthecreaturesthat I killed, I meanfour-footedones, and I hadthemhungup, stretchedoutwithsticksinthesun, bywhichmeanssomeofthemweresodryandhardthattheywerefitforlittle, butotherswereveryuseful. Thefirstthing I madeofthesewas a greatcapformyhead, withthehairontheoutside, toshootofftherain; andthis I performedsowell, thatafter I mademe a suitofclotheswhollyoftheseskins—thatistosay, a waistcoat, andbreechesopenattheknees, andbothloose, fortheywereratherwantingtokeepmecoolthantokeepmewarm. I mustnotomittoacknowledgethattheywerewretchedlymade; forif I was a badcarpenter, I was a worsetailor. However, theyweresuchas I madeverygoodshiftwith, andwhen I wasout, ifithappenedtorain, thehairofmywaistcoatandcapbeingoutermost, I waskeptverydry.

45

Afterthis, I spent a greatdealoftimeandpainstomakeanumbrella; I was, indeed, ingreatwantofone, andhad a greatmindtomakeone; I hadseenthemmadeintheBrazils, wheretheyareveryusefulinthegreatheatsthere, and I felttheheatseveryjotasgreathere, andgreatertoo, beingnearertheequinox; besides, as I wasobligedtobemuchabroad, itwas a mostusefulthingtome, aswellfortherainsastheheats. I took a worldofpainswithit, andwas a greatwhilebefore I couldmakeanythinglikelytohold: nay, after I hadthought I hadhittheway, I spoiledtwoorthreebefore I madeonetomymind: butatlast I madeonethatansweredindifferentlywell: themaindifficulty I foundwastomakeitletdown. I couldmakeitspread, butifitdidnotletdowntoo, anddrawin, itwasnotportableformeanywaybutjustovermyhead, whichwouldnotdo. However, atlast, as I said, I madeonetoanswer, andcovereditwithskins, thehairupwards, sothatitcastofftherainlike a pent-house, andkeptoffthesunsoeffectually, that I couldwalkoutinthehottestoftheweatherwithgreateradvantagethan I couldbeforeinthecoolest, andwhen I hadnoneedofitcouldcloseit, andcarryitundermyarm.