"Ifthesemetalswerelaidupinanytowerinthekingdomitwouldraise a jealousyofthePrinceandSenate, andgivebirthtothatfoolishmistrustintowhichthepeopleareapttofall--a jealousyoftheirintendingtosacrificetheinterestofthepublictotheirownprivateadvantage. Iftheyshouldworkitintovessels, oranysortofplate, theyfearthatthepeoplemightgrowtoofondofit, andsobeunwillingtolettheplateberundown, if a warmadeitnecessary, toemployitinpayingtheirsoldiers. Topreventalltheseinconveniencestheyhavefallenuponanexpedientwhich, asitagreeswiththeirotherpolicy, soisitverydifferentfromours, andwillscarcegainbeliefamonguswhovaluegoldsomuch, andlayitupsocarefully. Theyeatanddrinkoutofvesselsofearthorglass, whichmakeanagreeableappearance, thoughformedofbrittlematerials; whiletheymaketheirchamber-potsandclose- stoolsofgoldandsilver, andthatnotonlyintheirpublichallsbutintheirprivatehouses. Ofthesamemetalstheylikewisemakechainsandfettersfortheirslaves, tosomeofwhich, as a badgeofinfamy, theyhanganearringofgold, andmakeotherswear a chainor a coronetofthesamemetal; andthustheytakecarebyallpossiblemeanstorendergoldandsilverofnoesteem; andfromhenceitisthatwhileothernationspartwiththeirgoldandsilverasunwillinglyasifonetoreouttheirbowels, thoseofUtopiawouldlookontheirgivinginalltheypossessofthosemetals (whentherewereanyuseforthem) butasthepartingwith a trifle, oraswewouldesteemthelossof a penny! Theyfindpearlsontheircoasts, anddiamondsandcarbunclesontheirrocks; theydonotlookafterthem, but, iftheyfindthembychance, theypolishthem, andwiththemtheyadorntheirchildren, whoaredelightedwiththem, andgloryinthemduringtheirchildhood; butwhentheygrowtoyears, andseethatnonebutchildrenusesuchbaubles, theyoftheirownaccord, withoutbeingbidbytheirparents, laythemaside, andwouldbeasmuchashamedtousethemafterwardsaschildrenamongus, whentheycometoyears, areoftheirpuppetsandothertoys.

4

"I neversaw a clearerinstanceoftheoppositeimpressionsthatdifferentcustomsmakeonpeoplethan I observedintheambassadorsoftheAnemolians, whocametoAmaurotwhen I wasthere. Astheycametotreatofaffairsofgreatconsequence, thedeputiesfromseveraltownsmettogethertowaitfortheircoming. TheambassadorsofthenationsthatlienearUtopia, knowingtheircustoms, andthatfineclothesareinnoesteemamongthem, thatsilkisdespised, andgoldis a badgeofinfamy, usedtocomeverymodestlyclothed; buttheAnemolians, lyingmoreremote, andhavinghadlittlecommercewiththem, understandingthattheywerecoarselyclothed, andallinthesamemanner, tookitforgrantedthattheyhadnoneofthosefinethingsamongthemofwhichtheymadenouse; andthey, being a vaingloriousratherthan a wisepeople, resolvedtosetthemselvesoutwithsomuchpompthattheyshouldlooklikegods, andstriketheeyesofthepoorUtopianswiththeirsplendour. Thusthreeambassadorsmadetheirentrywith a hundredattendants, allcladingarmentsofdifferentcolours, andthegreaterpartinsilk; theambassadorsthemselves, whowereofthenobilityoftheircountry, wereincloth-of-gold, andadornedwithmassychains, earringsandringsofgold; theircapswerecoveredwithbraceletssetfullofpearlsandothergems--in a word, theyweresetoutwithallthosethingsthatamongtheUtopianswereeitherthebadgesofslavery, themarksofinfamy, ortheplaythingsofchildren. Itwasnotunpleasanttosee, ontheoneside, howtheylookedbig, whentheycomparedtheirrichhabitswiththeplainclothesoftheUtopians, whowerecomeoutingreatnumberstoseethemmaketheirentry; and, ontheother, toobservehowmuchtheyweremistakenintheimpressionwhichtheyhopedthispompwouldhavemadeonthem. Itappearedsoridiculous a showtoallthathadneverstirredoutoftheircountry, andhadnotseenthecustomsofothernations, thatthoughtheypaidsomereverencetothosethatwerethemostmeanlyclad, asiftheyhadbeentheambassadors, yetwhentheysawtheambassadorsthemselvessofullofgoldandchains, theylookeduponthemasslaves, andforboretotreatthemwithreverence. Youmighthaveseenthechildrenwhoweregrownbigenoughtodespisetheirplaythings, andwhohadthrownawaytheirjewels, calltotheirmothers, pushthemgently, andcryout, 'Seethatgreatfool, thatwearspearlsandgemsasifhewereyet a child!' whiletheirmothersveryinnocentlyreplied, 'Holdyourpeace! this, I believe, isoneoftheambassadors' fools.' Otherscensuredthefashionoftheirchains, andobserved, 'Thattheywereofnouse, fortheyweretooslighttobindtheirslaves, whocouldeasilybreakthem; and, besides, hungsolooseaboutthemthattheythoughtiteasytothrowtheiraway, andsogetfromthem." Butaftertheambassadorshadstayed a dayamongthem, andsawsovast a quantityofgoldintheirhouses (whichwasasmuchdespisedbythemasitwasesteemedinothernations), andbeheldmoregoldandsilverinthechainsandfettersofoneslavethanalltheirornamentsamountedto, theirplumesfell, andtheywereashamedofallthatgloryforwhichtheyhadformedvaluedthemselves, andaccordinglylaiditaside--a resolutionthattheyimmediatelytookwhen, ontheirengaginginsomefreediscoursewiththeUtopians, theydiscoveredtheirsenseofsuchthingsandtheirothercustoms. TheUtopianswonderhowanymanshouldbesomuchtakenwiththeglaringdoubtfullustreof a jewelor a stone, thatcanlookupto a starortothesunhimself; orhowanyshouldvaluehimselfbecausehisclothismadeof a finerthread; for, howfinesoeverthatthreadmaybe, itwasoncenobetterthanthefleeceof a sheep, andthatsheep, was a sheepstill, forallitswearingit. Theywondermuchtohearthatgold, whichinitselfissouseless a thing, shouldbeeverywheresomuchesteemedthatevenman, forwhomitwasmade, andbywhomithasitsvalue, shouldyetbethoughtoflessvaluethanthismetal; that a manoflead, whohasnomoresensethan a logofwood, andisasbadasheisfoolish, shouldhavemanywiseandgoodmentoservehim, onlybecausehehas a greatheapofthatmetal; andthatifitshouldhappenthatbysomeaccidentortrickoflaw (which, sometimesproducesasgreatchangesaschanceitself) allthiswealthshouldpassfromthemastertothemeanestvarletofhiswholefamily, hehimselfwouldverysoonbecomeoneofhisservants, asifhewere a thingthatbelongedtohiswealth, andsowereboundtofollowitsfortune! Buttheymuchmoreadmireanddetestthefollyofthosewho, whentheysee a richman, thoughtheyneitherowehimanything, norareinanysortdependentonhisbounty, yet, merelybecauseheisrich, givehimlittlelessthandivinehonours, eventhoughtheyknowhimtobesocovetousandbase-mindedthat, notwithstandingallhiswealth, hewillnotpartwithonefarthingofittothemaslongashelives!

5

"Theseandsuchlikenotionshavethatpeopleimbibed, partlyfromtheireducation, beingbredin a countrywhosecustomsandlawsareoppositetoallsuchfoolishmaxims, andpartlyfromtheirlearningandstudies--forthoughtherearebutfewinanytownthataresowhollyexcusedfromlabourastogivethemselvesentirelyuptotheirstudies (thesebeingonlysuchpersonsasdiscoverfromtheirchildhoodanextraordinarycapacityanddispositionforletters), yettheirchildrenand a greatpartofthenation, bothmenandwomen, aretaughttospendthosehoursinwhichtheyarenotobligedtoworkinreading; andthistheydothroughthewholeprogressoflife. Theyhavealltheirlearningintheirowntongue, whichisboth a copiousandpleasantlanguage, andinwhich a mancanfullyexpresshismind; itrunsover a greattractofmanycountries, butitisnotequallypureinallplaces. Theyhadneversomuchasheardofthenamesofanyofthosephilosophersthataresofamousinthesepartsoftheworld, beforewewentamongthem; andyettheyhadmadethesamediscoveriesastheGreeks, bothinmusic, logic, arithmetic, andgeometry. Butastheyarealmostineverythingequaltotheancientphilosophers, sotheyfarexceedourmodernlogiciansfortheyhaveneveryetfallenuponthebarbarousnicetiesthatouryouthareforcedtolearninthosetriflinglogicalschoolsthatareamongus. Theyaresofarfrommindingchimerasandfantasticalimagesmadeinthemindthatnoneofthemcouldcomprehendwhatwemeantwhenwetalkedtothemof a manintheabstractascommontoallmeninparticular (sothatthoughwespokeofhimas a thingthatwecouldpointatwithourfingers, yetnoneofthemcouldperceivehim) andyetdistinctfromeveryone, asifheweresomemonstrousColossusorgiant; yet, forallthisignoranceoftheseemptynotions, theyknewastronomy, andwereperfectlyacquaintedwiththemotionsoftheheavenlybodies; andhavemanyinstruments, wellcontrivedanddivided, bywhichtheyveryaccuratelycomputethecourseandpositionsofthesun, moon, andstars. Butforthecheatofdiviningbythestars, bytheiroppositionsorconjunctions, ithasnotsomuchasenteredintotheirthoughts. Theyhave a particularsagacity, foundeduponmuchobservation, injudgingoftheweather, bywhichtheyknowwhentheymaylookforrain, wind, orotheralterationsintheair; butastothephilosophyofthesethings, thecauseofthesaltnessofthesea, ofitsebbingandflowing, andoftheoriginalandnaturebothoftheheavensandtheearth, theydisputeofthempartlyasourancientphilosophershavedone, andpartlyuponsomenewhypothesis, inwhich, astheydifferfromthem, sotheydonotinallthingsagreeamongthemselves.

6

"Astomoralphilosophy, theyhavethesamedisputesamongthemaswehavehere. Theyexaminewhatareproperlygood, bothforthebodyandthemind; andwhetheranyoutwardthingcanbecalledtrulyGOOD, orifthattermbelongonlytotheendowmentsofthesoul. Theyinquire, likewise, intothenatureofvirtueandpleasure. Buttheirchiefdisputeisconcerningthehappinessof a man, andwhereinitconsists--whetherinsomeonethingorin a greatmany. Theyseem, indeed, moreinclinabletothatopinionthatplaces, ifnotthewhole, yetthechiefpart, of a man's happinessinpleasure; and, whatmayseemmorestrange, theymakeuseofargumentsevenfromreligion, notwithstandingitsseverityandroughness, forthesupportofthatopinionsoindulgenttopleasure; fortheyneverdisputeconcerninghappinesswithoutfetchingsomeargumentsfromtheprinciplesofreligionaswellasfromnaturalreason, sincewithouttheformertheyreckonthatallourinquiriesafterhappinessmustbebutconjecturalanddefective.

7

"Thesearetheirreligiousprinciples:- Thatthesoulofmanisimmortal, andthatGodofHisgoodnesshasdesignedthatitshouldbehappy; andthatHehas, therefore, appointedrewardsforgoodandvirtuousactions, andpunishmentsforvice, tobedistributedafterthislife. Thoughtheseprinciplesofreligionareconveyeddownamongthembytradition, theythinkthatevenreasonitselfdetermines a mantobelieveandacknowledgethem; andfreelyconfessthatiftheseweretakenaway, nomanwouldbesoinsensibleasnottoseekafterpleasurebyallpossiblemeans, lawfulorunlawful, usingonlythiscaution--that a lesserpleasuremightnotstandinthewayof a greater, andthatnopleasureoughttobepursuedthatshoulddraw a greatdealofpainafterit; fortheythinkitthemaddestthingintheworldtopursuevirtue, thatis a souranddifficultthing, andnotonlytorenouncethepleasuresoflife, butwillinglytoundergomuchpainandtrouble, if a manhasnoprospectof a reward. Andwhatrewardcantherebeforonethathaspassedhiswholelife, notonlywithoutpleasure, butinpain, ifthereisnothingtobeexpectedafterdeath? Yettheydonotplacehappinessinallsortsofpleasures, butonlyinthosethatinthemselvesaregoodandhonest. Thereis a partyamongthemwhoplacehappinessinbarevirtue; othersthinkthatournaturesareconductedbyvirtuetohappiness, asthatwhichisthechiefgoodofman. Theydefinevirtuethus--thatitis a livingaccordingtoNature, andthinkthatwearemadebyGodforthatend; theybelievethat a manthenfollowsthedictatesofNaturewhenhepursuesoravoidsthingsaccordingtothedirectionofreason. Theysaythatthefirstdictateofreasonisthekindlinginus a loveandreverencefortheDivineMajesty, towhomweowebothallthatwehaveand, allthatwecaneverhopefor. Inthenextplace, reasondirectsustokeepourmindsasfreefrompassionandascheerfulaswecan, andthatweshouldconsiderourselvesasboundbythetiesofgood-natureandhumanitytouseourutmostendeavourstohelpforwardthehappinessofallotherpersons; forthereneverwasanymansuch a moroseandseverepursuerofvirtue, suchanenemytopleasure, thatthoughhesethardrulesformentoundergo, muchpain, manywatchings, andotherrigors, yetdidnotatthesametimeadvisethemtodoalltheycouldinordertorelieveandeasethemiserable, andwhodidnotrepresentgentlenessandgood-natureasamiabledispositions. Andfromthencetheyinferthatif a manoughttoadvancethewelfareandcomfortoftherestofmankind (therebeingnovirtuemoreproperandpeculiartoournaturethantoeasethemiseriesofothers, tofreefromtroubleandanxiety, infurnishingthemwiththecomfortsoflife, inwhichpleasureconsists) Naturemuchmorevigorouslyleadsthemtodoallthisforhimself. A lifeofpleasureiseither a realevil, andinthatcaseweoughtnottoassistothersintheirpursuitofit, but, onthecontrary, tokeepthemfromitallwecan, asfromthatwhichismosthurtfulanddeadly; orifitis a goodthing, sothatwenotonlymaybutoughttohelpotherstoit, why, then, oughtnot a mantobeginwithhimself? sincenomancanbemoreboundtolookafterthegoodofanotherthanafterhisown; forNaturecannotdirectustobegoodandkindtoothers, andyetatthesametimetobeunmercifulandcrueltoourselves. ThusastheydefinevirtuetobelivingaccordingtoNature, sotheyimaginethatNaturepromptsallpeopleontoseekafterpleasureastheendofalltheydo. Theyalsoobservethatinordertooursupportingthepleasuresoflife, Natureinclinesustoenterintosociety; forthereisnomansomuchraisedabovetherestofmankindastobetheonlyfavouriteofNature, who, onthecontrary, seemstohaveplacedon a levelallthosethatbelongtothesamespecies. Uponthistheyinferthatnomanoughttoseekhisownconveniencessoeagerlyastoprejudiceothers; andthereforetheythinkthatnotonlyallagreementsbetweenprivatepersonsoughttobeobserved, butlikewisethatallthoselawsoughttobekeptwhicheither a goodprincehaspublishedindueform, ortowhich a peoplethatisneitheroppressedwithtyrannynorcircumventedbyfraudhasconsented, fordistributingthoseconveniencesoflifewhichaffordusallourpleasures.

8

"Theythinkitisanevidenceoftruewisdomfor a mantopursuehisownadvantageasfarasthelawsallowit, theyaccountitpietytopreferthepublicgoodtoone's privateconcerns, buttheythinkitunjustfor a mantoseekforpleasurebysnatchinganotherman's pleasuresfromhim; and, onthecontrary, theythinkit a signof a gentleandgoodsoulfor a mantodispensewithhisownadvantageforthegoodofothers, andthatbythismeans a goodmanfindsasmuchpleasureonewayashepartswithanother; forashemayexpectthelikefromotherswhenhemaycometoneedit, so, ifthatshouldfailhim, yetthesenseof a goodaction, andthereflectionsthathemakesontheloveandgratitudeofthosewhomhehassoobliged, givesthemindmorepleasurethanthebodycouldhavefoundinthatfromwhichithadrestraineditself. TheyarealsopersuadedthatGodwillmakeupthelossofthosesmallpleasureswith a vastandendlessjoy, ofwhichreligioneasilyconvinces a goodsoul.

9

"Thus, uponaninquiryintothewholematter, theyreckonthatallouractions, andevenallourvirtues, terminateinpleasure, asinourchiefendandgreatesthappiness; andtheycalleverymotionorstate, eitherofbodyormind, inwhichNatureteachesustodelight, a pleasure. ThustheycautiouslylimitpleasureonlytothoseappetitestowhichNatureleadsus; fortheysaythatNatureleadsusonlytothosedelightstowhichreason, aswellassense, carriesus, andbywhichweneitherinjureanyotherpersonnorlosethepossessionofgreaterpleasures, andofsuchasdrawnotroublesafterthem. Buttheylookuponthosedelightswhichmenby a foolish, thoughcommon, mistakecallpleasure, asiftheycouldchangeaseasilythenatureofthingsastheuseofwords, asthingsthatgreatlyobstructtheirrealhappiness, insteadofadvancingit, becausetheysoentirelypossessthemindsofthosethatareoncecaptivatedbythemwith a falsenotionofpleasurethatthereisnoroomleftforpleasuresof a truerorpurerkind.

10

"Therearemanythingsthatinthemselveshavenothingthatistrulydelightful; onthecontrary, theyhave a gooddealofbitternessinthem; andyet, fromourperverseappetitesafterforbiddenobjects, arenotonlyrankedamongthepleasures, butaremadeeventhegreatestdesigns, oflife. Amongthosewhopursuethesesophisticatedpleasurestheyreckonsuchas I mentionedbefore, whothinkthemselvesreallythebetterforhavingfineclothes; inwhichtheythinktheyaredoublymistaken, bothintheopiniontheyhaveoftheirclothes, andinthattheyhaveofthemselves. Forifyouconsidertheuseofclothes, whyshould a finethreadbethoughtbetterthan a coarseone? Andyetthesemen, asiftheyhadsomerealadvantagesbeyondothers, anddidnotowethemwhollytotheirmistakes, lookbig, seemtofancythemselvestobemorevaluable, andimaginethat a respectisduetothemforthesakeof a richgarment, towhichtheywouldnothavepretendediftheyhadbeenmoremeanlyclothed, andevenresentitasanaffrontifthatrespectisnotpaidthem. Itisalso a greatfollytobetakenwithoutwardmarksofrespect, whichsignifynothing; forwhattrueorrealpleasurecanonemanfindinanother's standingbareormakinglegstohim? Willthebendinganotherman's kneesgiveeasetoyours? andwillthehead's beingbarecurethemadnessofyours? Andyetitiswonderfultoseehowthisfalsenotionofpleasurebewitchesmanywhodelightthemselveswiththefancyoftheirnobility, andarepleasedwiththisconceit--thattheyaredescendedfromancestorswhohavebeenheldforsomesuccessionsrich, andwhohavehadgreatpossessions; forthisisallthatmakesnobilityatpresent. Yettheydonotthinkthemselves a whitthelessnoble, thoughtheirimmediateparentshaveleftnoneofthiswealthtothem, orthoughtheythemselveshavesquandereditaway. TheUtopianshavenobetteropinionofthosewhoaremuchtakenwithgemsandpreciousstones, andwhoaccountit a degreeofhappinessnextto a divineoneiftheycanpurchaseonethatisveryextraordinary, especiallyifitbeofthatsortofstonesthatistheningreatestrequest, forthesamesortisnotatalltimesuniversallyofthesamevalue, norwillmenbuyitunlessitbedismountedandtakenoutofthegold. Thejewelleristhenmadetogivegoodsecurity, andrequiredsolemnlytoswearthatthestoneistrue, that, bysuchanexactcaution, a falseonemightnotbeboughtinsteadof a true; though, ifyouweretoexamineit, youreyecouldfindnodifferencebetweenthecounterfeitandthatwhichistrue; sothattheyareallonetoyou, asmuchasifyouwereblind. Orcanitbethoughtthattheywhoheapup a uselessmassofwealth, notforanyusethatitistobringthem, butmerelytopleasethemselveswiththecontemplationofit, enjoyanytruepleasureinit? Thedelighttheyfindisonly a falseshadowofjoy. Thosearenobetterwhoseerrorissomewhatdifferentfromtheformer, andwhohideitoutoftheirfearoflosingit; forwhatothernamecanfitthehidingitintheearth, or, rather, therestoringittoitagain, itbeingthuscutofffrombeingusefuleithertoitsownerortotherestofmankind? Andyettheowner, havinghiditcarefully, isglad, becausehethinksheisnowsureofit. Ifitshouldbestole, theowner, thoughhemightliveperhapstenyearsafterthetheft, ofwhichheknewnothing, wouldfindnodifferencebetweenhishavingorlosingit, forbothwaysitwasequallyuselesstohim.

11

"Amongthosefoolishpursuersofpleasuretheyreckonallthatdelightinhunting, infowling, orgaming, ofwhosemadnesstheyhaveonlyheard, fortheyhavenosuchthingsamongthem. Buttheyhaveaskedus, 'Whatsortofpleasureisitthatmencanfindinthrowingthedice?' (foriftherewereanypleasureinit, theythinkthedoingitsooftenshouldgiveone a surfeitofit); 'andwhatpleasurecanonefindinhearingthebarkingandhowlingofdogs, whichseemratherodiousthanpleasantsounds?' Norcantheycomprehendthepleasureofseeingdogsrunafter a hare, morethanofseeingonedogrunafteranother; foriftheseeingthemrunisthatwhichgivesthepleasure, youhavethesameentertainmenttotheeyeonboththeseoccasions, sincethatisthesameinbothcases. Butifthepleasureliesinseeingtheharekilledandtornbythedogs, thisoughtrathertostirpity, that a weak, harmless, andfearfulhareshouldbedevouredbystrong, fierce, andcrueldogs. Thereforeallthisbusinessofhuntingis, amongtheUtopians, turnedovertotheirbutchers, andthose, ashasbeenalreadysaid, areallslaves, andtheylookonhuntingasoneofthebasestpartsof a butcher's work, fortheyaccountitbothmoreprofitableandmoredecenttokillthosebeaststhataremorenecessaryandusefultomankind, whereasthekillingandtearingofsosmallandmiserableananimalcanonlyattractthehuntsmanwith a falseshowofpleasure, fromwhichhecanreapbutsmalladvantage. Theylookonthedesireofthebloodshed, evenofbeasts, as a markof a mindthatisalreadycorruptedwithcruelty, orthatatleast, bytoofrequentreturnsofsobrutal a pleasure, mustdegenerateintoit.

12

"Thusthoughtherabbleofmankindlookuponthese, andoninnumerableotherthingsofthesamenature, aspleasures, theUtopians, onthecontrary, observingthatthereisnothinginthemtrulypleasant, concludethattheyarenottobereckonedamongpleasures; forthoughthesethingsmaycreatesometicklinginthesenses (whichseemstobe a truenotionofpleasure), yettheyimaginethatthisdoesnotarisefromthethingitself, butfrom a depravedcustom, whichmaysovitiate a man's tastethatbitterthingsmaypassforsweet, aswomenwithchildthinkpitchortallowtastesweeterthanhoney; butas a man's sense, whencorruptedeitherby a diseaseorsomeillhabit., doesnotchangethenatureofotherthings, soneithercanitchangethenatureofpleasure.

13

"Theyreckonupseveralsortsofpleasures, whichtheycalltrueones; somebelongtothebody, andotherstothemind. Thepleasuresofthemindlieinknowledge, andinthatdelightwhichthecontemplationoftruthcarrieswithit; towhichtheyaddthejoyfulreflectionson a well-spentlife, andtheassuredhopesof a futurehappiness. Theydividethepleasuresofthebodyintotwosorts--theoneisthatwhichgivesoursensessomerealdelight, andisperformedeitherbyrecruitingNatureandsupplyingthosepartswhichfeedtheinternalheatoflifebyeatinganddrinking, orwhenNatureiseasedofanysurchargethatoppressesit, whenwearerelievedfromsuddenpain, orthatwhicharisesfromsatisfyingtheappetitewhichNaturehaswiselygiventoleadustothepropagationofthespecies. Thereisanotherkindofpleasurethatarisesneitherfromourreceivingwhatthebodyrequires, noritsbeingrelievedwhenovercharged, andyet, by a secretunseenvirtue, affectsthesenses, raisesthepassions, andstrikesthemindwithgenerousimpressions--thisis, thepleasurethatarisesfrommusic. Anotherkindofbodilypleasureisthatwhichresultsfromanundisturbedandvigorousconstitutionofbody, whenlifeandactivespiritsseemtoactuateeverypart. Thislivelyhealth, whenentirelyfreefromallmixtureofpain, ofitselfgivesaninwardpleasure, independentofallexternalobjectsofdelight; andthoughthispleasuredoesnotsopowerfullyaffectus, noractsostronglyonthesensesassomeoftheothers, yetitmaybeesteemedasthegreatestofallpleasures; andalmostalltheUtopiansreckonitthefoundationandbasisofalltheotherjoysoflife, sincethisalonemakesthestateoflifeeasyanddesirable, andwhenthisiswanting, a manisreallycapableofnootherpleasure. Theylookuponfreedomfrompain, ifitdoesnotrisefromperfecthealth, tobe a stateofstupidityratherthanofpleasure. Thissubjecthasbeenverynarrowlycanvassedamongthem, andithasbeendebatedwhether a firmandentirehealthcouldbecalled a pleasureornot. Somehavethoughtthattherewasnopleasurebutwhatwas 'excited' bysomesensiblemotioninthebody. Butthisopinionhasbeenlongagoexcludedfromamongthem; sothatnowtheyalmostuniversallyagreethathealthisthegreatestofallbodilypleasures; andthatasthereis a paininsicknesswhichisasoppositeinitsnaturetopleasureassicknessitselfistohealth, sotheyholdthathealthisaccompaniedwithpleasure. Andifanyshouldsaythatsicknessisnotreallypain, butthatitonlycarriespainalongwithit, theylookuponthatas a fetchofsubtletythatdoesnotmuchalterthematter. Itisallone, intheiropinion, whetheritbesaidthathealthisinitself a pleasure, orthatitbegets a pleasure, asfiregivesheat, soitbegrantedthatallthosewhosehealthisentirehave a truepleasureintheenjoymentofit. Andtheyreasonthus:- 'Whatisthepleasureofeating, butthat a man's health, whichhadbeenweakened, does, withtheassistanceoffood, driveawayhunger, andsorecruitingitself, recoversitsformervigour? Andbeingthusrefresheditfinds a pleasureinthatconflict; andiftheconflictispleasure, thevictorymustyetbreed a greaterpleasure, exceptwefancythatitbecomesstupidassoonasithasobtainedthatwhichitpursued, andsoneitherknowsnorrejoicesinitsownwelfare.' Ifitissaidthathealthcannotbefelt, theyabsolutelydenyit; forwhatmanisinhealth, thatdoesnotperceiveitwhenheisawake? Isthereanymanthatissodullandstupidasnottoacknowledgethathefeels a delightinhealth? Andwhatisdelightbutanothernameforpleasure?

14

"But, ofallpleasures, theyesteemthosetobemostvaluablethatlieinthemind, thechiefofwhichariseoutoftruevirtueandthewitnessof a goodconscience. Theyaccounthealththechiefpleasurethatbelongstothebody; fortheythinkthatthepleasureofeatinganddrinking, andalltheotherdelightsofsense, areonlysofardesirableastheygiveormaintainhealth; buttheyarenotpleasantinthemselvesotherwisethanastheyresistthoseimpressionsthatournaturalinfirmitiesarestillmakinguponus. Foras a wisemandesiresrathertoavoiddiseasesthantotakephysic, andtobefreedfrompainratherthantofindeasebyremedies, soitismoredesirablenottoneedthissortofpleasurethantobeobligedtoindulgeit. Ifanymanimaginesthatthereis a realhappinessintheseenjoyments, hemustthenconfessthathewouldbethehappiestofallmenifheweretoleadhislifeinperpetualhunger, thirst, anditching, and, byconsequence, inperpetualeating, drinking, andscratchinghimself; whichanyonemayeasilyseewouldbenotonly a base, but a miserable, stateof a life. Theseare, indeed, thelowestofpleasures, andtheleastpure, forwecanneverrelishthembutwhentheyaremixedwiththecontrarypains. Thepainofhungermustgiveusthepleasureofeating, andherethepainout-balancesthepleasure. Andasthepainismorevehement, soitlastsmuchlonger; forasitbeginsbeforethepleasure, soitdoesnotceasebutwiththepleasurethatextinguishesit, andbothexpiretogether. Theythink, therefore, noneofthosepleasuresaretobevaluedanyfurtherthanastheyarenecessary; yettheyrejoiceinthem, andwithduegratitudeacknowledgethetendernessofthegreatAuthorofNature, whohasplantedinusappetites, bywhichthosethingsthatarenecessaryforourpreservationarelikewisemadepleasanttous. Forhowmiserable a thingwouldlifebeifthosedailydiseasesofhungerandthirstweretobecarriedoffbysuchbitterdrugsaswemustuseforthosediseasesthatreturnseldomeruponus! Andthusthesepleasant, aswellasproper, giftsofNaturemaintainthestrengthandthesprightlinessofourbodies.

15

"Theyalsoentertainthemselveswiththeotherdelightsletinattheireyes, theirears, andtheirnostrilsasthepleasantrelishesandseasoningoflife, whichNatureseemstohavemarkedoutpeculiarlyforman, sincenoothersortofanimalscontemplatesthefigureandbeautyoftheuniverse, norisdelightedwithsmellsanyfurtherthanastheydistinguishmeatsbythem; nordotheyapprehendtheconcordsordiscordsofsound. Yet, inallpleasureswhatsoever, theytakecarethat a lesserjoydoesnothinder a greater, andthatpleasuremayneverbreedpain, whichtheythinkalwaysfollowsdishonestpleasures. Buttheythinkitmadnessfor a mantowearoutthebeautyofhisfaceortheforceofhisnaturalstrength, tocorruptthesprightlinessofhisbodybyslothandlaziness, ortowasteitbyfasting; thatitismadnesstoweakenthestrengthofhisconstitutionandrejecttheotherdelightsoflife, unlessbyrenouncinghisownsatisfactionhecaneitherservethepublicorpromotethehappinessofothers, forwhichheexpects a greaterrecompensefromGod. Sothattheylookonsuch a courseoflifeasthemarkof a mindthatisbothcrueltoitselfandungratefultotheAuthorofNature, asifwewouldnotbebeholdentoHimforHisfavours, andthereforerejectsallHisblessings; asonewhoshouldafflicthimselffortheemptyshadowofvirtue, orfornobetterendthantorenderhimselfcapableofbearingthosemisfortuneswhichpossiblywillneverhappen.

16

"Thisistheirnotionofvirtueandofpleasure: theythinkthatnoman's reasoncancarryhimto a truerideaofthemunlesssomediscoveryfromheavenshouldinspirehimwithsublimernotions. I havenotnowtheleisuretoexaminewhethertheythinkrightorwronginthismatter; nordo I judgeitnecessary, for I haveonlyundertakentogiveyouanaccountoftheirconstitution, butnottodefendalltheirprinciples. I amsurethatwhatevermaybesaidoftheirnotions, thereisnotinthewholeworldeither a betterpeopleor a happiergovernment. Theirbodiesarevigorousandlively; andthoughtheyarebutof a middlestature, andhaveneitherthefruitfullestsoilnorthepurestairintheworld; yettheyfortifythemselvessowell, bytheirtemperatecourseoflife, againsttheunhealthinessoftheirair, andbytheirindustrytheysocultivatetheirsoil, thatthereisnowheretobeseen a greaterincrease, bothofcornandcattle, norarethereanywherehealthiermenandfreerfromdiseases; foronemaythereseereducedtopracticenotonlyalltheartthatthehusbandmanemploysinmanuringandimprovinganillsoil, butwholewoodspluckedupbytheroots, andinotherplacesnewonesplanted, wheretherewerenonebefore. Theirprincipalmotiveforthisistheconvenienceofcarriage, thattheirtimbermaybeeitherneartheirtownsorgrowingonthebanksofthesea, orofsomerivers, soastobefloatedtothem; foritis a harderworktocarrywoodatanydistanceoverlandthancorn. Thepeopleareindustrious, apttolearn, aswellascheerfulandpleasant, andnonecanenduremorelabourwhenitisnecessary; but, exceptinthatcase, theylovetheirease. Theyareunweariedpursuersofknowledge; forwhenwehadgiventhemsomehintsofthelearninganddisciplineoftheGreeks, concerningwhomweonlyinstructedthem (forweknowthattherewasnothingamongtheRomans, excepttheirhistoriansandtheirpoets, thattheywouldvaluemuch), itwasstrangetoseehoweagerlytheyweresetonlearningthatlanguage: webegantoread a littleofittothem, ratherincompliancewiththeirimportunitythanoutofanyhopesoftheirreapingfromitanygreatadvantage: but, after a veryshorttrial, wefoundtheymadesuchprogress, thatwesawourlabourwasliketobemoresuccessfulthanwecouldhaveexpected: theylearnedtowritetheircharactersandtopronouncetheirlanguagesoexactly, hadsoquickanapprehension, theyremembereditsofaithfully, andbecamesoreadyandcorrectintheuseofit, thatitwouldhavelookedlike a miracleifthegreaterpartofthosewhomwetaughthadnotbeenmenbothofextraordinarycapacityandof a fitageforinstruction: theywere, forthegreatestpart, chosenfromamongtheirlearnedmenbytheirchiefcouncil, thoughsomestudieditoftheirownaccord. Inthreeyears' timetheybecamemastersofthewholelanguage, sothattheyreadthebestoftheGreekauthorsveryexactly. I am, indeed, apttothinkthattheylearnedthatlanguagethemoreeasilyfromitshavingsomerelationtotheirown. I believethattheywere a colonyoftheGreeks; forthoughtheirlanguagecomesnearerthePersian, yettheyretainmanynames, bothfortheirtownsandmagistrates, thatareofGreekderivation. I happenedtocarry a greatmanybookswithme, insteadofmerchandise, when I sailedmyfourthvoyage; for I wassofarfromthinkingofsooncomingback, that I ratherthoughtnevertohavereturnedatall, and I gavethemallmybooks, amongwhichweremanyofPlato's andsomeofAristotle's works: I hadalsoTheophrastusonPlants, which, tomygreatregret, wasimperfect; forhavinglaiditcarelesslyby, whilewewereatsea, a monkeyhadseizeduponit, andinmanyplacestornouttheleaves. TheyhavenobooksofgrammarbutLascares, for I didnotcarryTheodoruswithme; norhavetheyanydictionariesbutHesichiusandDioscerides. TheyesteemPlutarchhighly, andweremuchtakenwithLucian's witandwithhispleasantwayofwriting. Asforthepoets, theyhaveAristophanes, Homer, Euripides, andSophoclesofAldus's edition; andforhistorians, Thucydides, Herodotus, andHerodian. Oneofmycompanions, ThriciusApinatus, happenedtocarrywithhimsomeofHippocrates's worksandGalen's Microtechne, whichtheyholdingreatestimation; forthoughthereisnonationintheworldthatneedsphysicsolittleastheydo, yetthereisnotanythathonoursitsomuch; theyreckontheknowledgeofitoneofthepleasantestandmostprofitablepartsofphilosophy, bywhich, astheysearchintothesecretsofnature, sotheynotonlyfindthisstudyhighlyagreeable, butthinkthatsuchinquiriesareveryacceptabletotheAuthorofnature; andimagine, thatasHe, liketheinventorsofcuriousenginesamongstmankind, hasexposedthisgreatmachineoftheuniversetotheviewoftheonlycreaturescapableofcontemplatingit, soanexactandcuriousobserver, whoadmiresHisworkmanship, ismuchmoreacceptabletoHimthanoneoftheherd, who, like a beastincapableofreason, looksonthisgloriousscenewiththeeyesof a dullandunconcernedspectator.

17

"ThemindsoftheUtopians, whenfencedwith a loveforlearning, areveryingeniousindiscoveringallsuchartsasarenecessarytocarryittoperfection. Twothingstheyowetous, themanufactureofpaperandtheartofprinting; yettheyarenotsoentirelyindebtedtousforthesediscoveriesbutthat a greatpartoftheinventionwastheirown. WeshowedthemsomebooksprintedbyAldus, weexplainedtothemthewayofmakingpaperandthemysteryofprinting; but, aswehadneverpractisedthesearts, wedescribedthemin a crudeandsuperficialmanner. Theyseizedthehintswegavethem; andthoughatfirsttheycouldnotarriveatperfection, yetbymakingmanyessaystheyatlastfoundoutandcorrectedalltheirerrorsandconqueredeverydifficulty. Beforethistheyonlywroteonparchment, onreeds, oronthebarksoftrees; butnowtheyhaveestablishedthemanufacturesofpaperandsetupprintingpresses, sothat, iftheyhadbut a goodnumberofGreekauthors, theywouldbequicklysuppliedwithmanycopiesofthem: atpresent, thoughtheyhavenomorethanthose I havementioned, yet, byseveralimpressions, theyhavemultipliedthemintomanythousands. Ifanymanwastogoamongthemthathadsomeextraordinarytalent, orthatbymuchtravellinghadobservedthecustomsofmanynations (whichmadeustobesowellreceived), hewouldreceive a heartywelcome, fortheyareverydesiroustoknowthestateofthewholeworld. Veryfewgoamongthemontheaccountoftraffic; forwhatcan a mancarrytothembutiron, orgold, orsilver? whichmerchantsdesirerathertoexportthanimportto a strangecountry: andasfortheirexportation, theythinkitbettertomanagethatthemselvesthantoleaveittoforeigners, forbythismeans, astheyunderstandthestateoftheneighbouringcountriesbetter, sotheykeepuptheartofnavigationwhichcannotbemaintainedbutbymuchpractice.